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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

A brief guide

What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?

-Source: APA Div. 12 (Society of Clinical Psychology)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychological treatment that has been effective for various problems, including depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use problems, marital problems, eating disorders, and severe mental illness. Numerous research studies suggest that CBT leads to significant improvement in functioning and quality of life. In many studies, CBT has been demonstrated to be as effective as or more effective than other forms of psychological therapy or psychiatric medications.

It is important to emphasize that advances in CBT have been made based on research and clinical practice. Indeed, CBT is an approach for which there is ample scientific evidence that the methods that have been developed produce change. In this manner, CBT differs from many other forms of psychological treatment.

CBT is based on several core principles, including:

  1. Psychological problems are based, in part, on faulty or unhelpful ways of thinking.

  2. Psychological problems are based, in part, on learned patterns of unhelpful behavior.

  3. People suffering from psychological problems can learn better ways of coping with them, thereby relieving their symptoms and becoming more effective in their lives.

CBT treatment usually involves efforts to change thinking patterns. These strategies might include:

  • Learning to recognize one’s distortions in thinking that create problems and then reevaluate them in light of reality.

  • Gaining a better understanding of the behavior and motivation of others.

  • Using problem-solving skills to cope with difficult situations.

  • Learning to develop a greater sense of confidence in one’s abilities.

CBT treatment also usually involves efforts to change behavioral patterns. These strategies might include:

  • Facing one’s fears instead of avoiding them.

  • Using role-playing to prepare for potentially problematic interactions with others.

  • Learning to calm one’s mind and relax one’s body.

Not all CBT will use all of these strategies. Instead, the psychologist and patient/client work together to understand the problem and develop a treatment strategy.

CBT places emphasis on helping individuals learn to be their therapists. Through exercises in the session and “homework” exercises outside of sessions, patients/clients are helped to develop coping skills, whereby they can learn to change their thinking, problematic emotions, and behavior.

CBT therapists emphasize what is going on in the person’s current life, rather than what has led up to their difficulties. A certain amount of information about one’s history is needed, but the focus is primarily on moving forward in time to develop more effective ways of coping with life.